International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 10 No. 2, January 1900
Argues for the rights of animals to live their own lives as individuals with own purposes and value. Emphasises direct duties of humans to animals. The kinship of humans and animals as evidenced by evolution is basic to ethics. A matter if justice: treat an animal is such a manner as you would willingly be treated, were you the animal. Discusses implications for animals used for labour, food, experimentation, sports. Agrues against D. G. Ritchie’s denial of animal rights.